Our German Bohemian Legacy
Robert J. Paulson
The district capital Hostau was located halfway between the county town of Bischofteinitz and the Bavarian border with iron village , at the foot of the 527 m high Althütten Hill, was at an altitude of 448 m on Altbache and consisted in 1938 of 205 houses with 1200 inhabitants , all of them Catholics . The place was in its main extent a WNW direction, rising slightly to the west. Two kilometers to the northwest was the Black Mountain ( 591 ) , from whose summit we had a wonderful view over the Radbusatal , on the seven mountains and north on the Pfraumberg (847 m).
Hostau 1913 was the seat of a district court , a tax office , a financial security Commissariat ( 1918 Gefälls Control Board , from 1938 customs supervision control site) , the district representative , a notary's office (since 1862) and a doctor who had a shoe and aid station , a pharmacy, later a drug store was added , a post and telegraph office, a police station , a brewery , a modern steam brick and from 1914 a stud . In the twenties, yet were added a warehouse and a steam saw and planing mill . Hostau was a railway station of the local train service plan dew. Road default, the site was 1 km away from the district road Bischofteinitz - iron village, on the county road Hostau - Ronsperg - Taus and the connection road to Schwarzach ( Bavarian border) .
Here was located on a royal castle, which was a water castle earlier. It had the shape of a right angle and served as a hunting lodge . Later it was the widow seat of Princess Anne of Trauttmansdorff . It was surrounded by a park , in which there was also a pond. To the palace included a Grange. Due to the outbreak of war in 1914 a befindliches in Galicia stud was moved to Hostau . Castle Grange and with the courts Zwirschen Meier , Hassatitz and Taschlowitz were leased by the state and converted into a stud ( remount - Office). The whole plant , including pastures , was acquired as part of the expropriation in 1918 by the Czechoslovak state and converted into a military stud farm. The castle and its outbuildings , the management of the stud and apartments were for staff .
The once very handsome linen hand weaving on hand-looms was ordinary as well as the widespread Bandweberei received through difficult paragraph in the countries of the German Zollverein .
The pottery Liebscher was allegedly run strong and yielded good cookware , which was found not only in Bavaria but also in Tirol , Salzburg and Württemberg.The main industry was agriculture . Honey bees were also bred .
The Church of St. . Jacob the Elder has already been mentioned as a parish in 1384 . On 16 March 1805 the parish was to brought to deanery. During the religious unrest Hostau became Protestant. Among those exiled after the Battle of the White Mountain Lutheran pastors was Christoph Flaxius. He later was pastor in Teichwolframsdorf in Saxony. The church was renovated in 1731 and contains three altars. The image on the altar of Our Lady of Sorrows was a picture of grace .
According to the records contained in the Hostau deanery there were at least 200 cases cited in which the sick and disabilities of all kinds such as the blind, the lame , the deaf and with epilepsy -prone from near and far have recourse to the Sorrowful Mother of God and regained their health again .
After the Archbishop's Consistory in Prague had become aware of the many graces and blessings , it granted at the request of Hostau pastor Peter Aulik and the City Council , the transfer of the miraculous image , which had been donated by the family Bardo of the church, from a chapel in the city Church in Hostau . This transfer took place in 1729 in the most solemn manner . Count Norbert von Trauttmansdorff even made preparations for this celebration and invited all his officials and subjects to attend. The Count took personal part in the procession out of gratitude for his recovery of his son. A very large crowd , the city council of Hostau , all guilds and cooperatives moved with their flags under the leadership of the town pastor from the city to the Lady Chapel . After performing prayers the holy image was transferred under solemn ringing of bells in St. Jacob's Church , where it was placed on the right side of the altar for public veneration .
The Pope gave the Church the image of St . Catherine, however, the devastating fire of the 19 August 1877, destroyed. the Dean's Church. However, the above-mentioned miraculous image was saved . The church is decorated with frescoes and is one of the most beautiful in the area. The three bells on the tower include the annual figures 1453 , 1516 and 1562 (after summer: 1483.1536 and 1562) . Deanery to the villages Grarnatin , Mirko wit and Zwirschen addition to the monolayer were Neuhütte 1839 except Hostau the parish .
The cemetery at the southern end of the town was established in 1826. It was a Meßkapelle to the Assumption, which was built by Susanna Kleinschmidt, left behind a widow of the citizen and council relatives Hanns Kleinschmidt , according to an inscription in 1663 .
Near the Assumption Chapel was the Meßkapelle Corporis Christi . This was built in 1634 by the Countess of Kordula Chudenitz and consecrated by Bishop Simon Brosius , removed due to disrepair but 1802.
The Municipal Hospital , which in 1839 the existing calculations suggest that already existed in 1728 , 1880 but has been re-regulated , had its own building .
In the Council Chambers of the saga were kept by two fingers in the pedestals of a crucifix . As long ago a subject of domination Holy Cross had stored on the local council chamber a false oath , he should be dropped in the presence of those present suddenly by the hand of these two fingers .Hostau was the birthplace of Martin Syra , the 36th Abbot of the monastery Kladrau , where on he second Died in June 1611 .
The school building was after the fire in 1877 , in which the former was destroyed , built . The school was vierklassig 1913 (1 parallel , Children: 256). Started school at that time were : Hostau , Zwirschen , Mirko joke ( Expositur ) and Horouschen .
The host Auer had the right to hold a funfair on the day of St. . Jacob (July 25 ) . Emperor Rudolf II granted in 1587 , two annual fairs and a horse market. One of the Fairs was on the Wednesday after Simon and Jude , who eventually set others on the Wednesday after the Sunday of Lent Reminiscere ( "on eight consecutive days " ) , the horse market on Wednesday after the Sunday Invocavit .
Regarding the fairs, which were granted to the host Auern , "MUST bring none of his reign Hostau and Zwirschen his goods ( cargo ) in cities other than to Hostau to Sell . Should someone do with grain , butter, cheese , beef , among other things , this still does not come to Hostau markets , the Hostau are authorized to drive the person to the city to take off his load and use for the benefit of Einwohnerschafi . Horses and carts are to be brought to the palace . The state can use money for the benefit of the general Hostau . "
For ancient history is to report that contained near open barrows bronze objects , weapons , bracelets and ash urns.
Hostau takes its name not from Dobrohost , still less of "Au" , but of Hostun , a Wladyken which the place founded in 1228 and named Gumpert of Hostau . His son Pawlik presented this year in the clubs with Prothus and Zdenek Hostau of the church to Hostau a priest . The last mention of him occurs 1364. Guardians of his children were Peter and John of Rosenberg, which in 1378 hired a new pastor in Hostau . 1379 Raczek appears as Lord of Hostau mother village and villages Ostrow , Gramatin , Horouschen and Hassatitz and is mentioned as a saint 1406-1407 the mother church villages . This generation does not appear at the beginning of the Hussite Wars . A branch was built in the near Ronsperg and flourished in the 17th Century.
Then came the sex of the Wolff stones to rule Hostau . This sat on the castle Wolffenstein whose Trümrner are still visible on the Wolf Mountains at Tschernoschin .
Tiburz of Wolffenstein ( in the document it says " Ctibor z Olsteina " ) presented as lord of Hostau 1423 at the church and in 1424 the altars of St. . Catherine priest and was a faithful follower of Emperor Sigismund and the Catholic Church . In 1428 he joined the agreement between the Catholic nobles and the Tausern armistice at , fought bravely the Hussite viscount of Taus and was called to restore order in the country in 1437 in the royal land rights . He was present on that day to Vienna and was the occasion of the conclusion of peace , which on 20 April 1444 was mediated by the captains of the Pilsen Region Hans von Kolowrat and Burian of Guttenstein between Prschibik of Klenau and Klatt Auern chosen to settle this matter. He was also owner of the castle deer stone, which he had in 1437 reversed to Zdenko Drschtka and Zdenko Kolvin of Ronsperg against the villages Tuschkau and Untermedelzen .
Tiburz gave the host Auern the right to their movable and immovable property to give away at will , sell or bequeath . Someone dies without descendants and Testament , that his assets pass to his next of kin . Also the citizens have the right to , to leave the city and settle elsewhere , but must each be good for the time being a righteous man, who likes the authorities , occupy, so do not miss the same interest . Tiburz died in 1456.
These freedoms confirmed Prothus Czernin of Chudenitz 1456 on Tuesdays after All Saints . Tiburzens son, also called Tiburz , and was in possession of Hostau and Triebel was in military service of the Duke of Bavaria as a corporal and he died in 1497 without issue . He was the last of the race of Wolff stones. The emblem of this noble family was a wolf in a red field.
Tiburz was ( 1485-1486 ) called the owner of the royal country right from the equestrian order later. He died in 1497 without issue . After Tiburz Wolff stone death the rule Hostau came to Henry Kolowrat Krakowsky . This confirmed the host Auern which conferred on them by Tiburz of Wolffenstein rights. But as his Robot people appeared before him, like the Müller, and asked him to grant them the same freedoms as the other , so he wants her pleas seeing trips . The relevant certificates had been issued in 1497 , on Monday before the days of St. . Laurenz .
After he received Hostau and half of Zwirschen Christoph Guttenstein , which exchanged with John of Rabstein . The latter received the castle, the courtyard and the city Hostau , Gramatin , Schilligkau , Hassatitz , Mirko joke , Holub 's , Roudnitz and the desolate village Czernahora , the desolate castle Zwirschen , half yard and half of the village Obora (?) .
Johann Rabstein confirmed to host the Auern conferred by Tiburz of Wolffenstein and Heinrich von Kolowrat rights, including the millers . Without being asked , he turned on Diesntag before Mary's birth in 1513 to host Auern for his proven loyalty and respect , which they place in the age, nor the grace that each native host Auer, the 70th , the Had reached the age , male or female, should be exempt from all Giebigkeiten and robotic performances until his death . If someone has spent his youth elsewhere, but return the age to Hostau and purchase a property here is also such that grace be a partaker , but he must state his age, the mayor and the rate of the city truthfully.
From the nearby Good Taschlowitz Rabstein Wittana and Haschowa bought with half the taxes that had to be made to the church in bulk Arschen .
In a document of 1539 , issued on Wednesday before the hl . Florian , he freed the Hostau of all taxes that weigh on the town hall , with the exception of charges for the brewing of wheat beer .
In his old age he gave his property to his sons Wenceslas and Adalbert of Rabstein . When he died in 1540-1541 , his sons shared in the goods. Wenzel received half of Zwirschen , the other half he bought , also half the town Hostau , Holub 's and Dobraken , the desolate villages Roudnitz and Tschischov with the Giebigkeiten on bulk Arschen . His wife was Anna of Swan Mountain . He died , 1552.
When Wenceslas and Adalbert of Rabstein brothers the city Hostau had in common, they confirmed the host Auern 1544 the rights previously granted to them Wednesday after Palm Sunday .
The cousin Adalbert , Moritz Schlick of Holitsch , the inherited goods under the condition that he cede all of these goods to the brother Adalbert's heirs after his death. This happened after the death in 1578 of Moritz Schlick . The other brother Adalbert received at the division the other half of Hostau with the castle . Adalbert was married to Anastasia of Guttenstein and had two sons : John and Wenzel , and two daughters. The resident at his unmarried sister of his wife , Marianne , he bequeathed to its rightful part of Petersburg. After the death of her father Johann Wolf and released as Men of Hostau . They are mentioned even in 1571 .
After the division Wolf received the castle and the courtyard Hostau , half the town , the villages Gramatin , Schilligkau , Wittana , Haschowa and bulk Arschen , also of the St. Petersburg reign the fourth part of Jechnitz and parts of three villages. Johann had in any case the other half of Hostau . He died in 1580. The rule Hostau including Zwirschen inherited the sisters Barbara and Anna Svitakow Guttenstein to Rabenstein . Barbara received at the division Petersburg, Anna Hostau with Zwirschen and died before 1586 , after they had their entitlements transferred to her husband , to George of Guttenstein .
This confirmed the host Auern the previously acquired privileges which were registered in the country table .On his intercession Hostau 1587 by Rudolf II became a town and was given a coat of arms . Its shape differs in the description of the reproduced by the summer of 1839 form slightly.
Emperor Rudolf also gave the city the right to seal with red wax . He also allowed that craftsmen to settle in the city and operate their business ; given in Prague on Saturday after nearly Sundays Invocavit 1557. In 1587 Rudolf II confirmed at the Prague castle the privilege of Ctibor Wolffenstein from 1456 , by Heinrich Kolowrat from 1497 , of John of Rabstein from 1513 and 1539 , from Wenceslas and St. Adalbert of Rabstein from 1544 and of George of Guttenstein from 1587.
Georg Guttenstein gave the host Auern free will the right for the office of alderman to use a Bohemia ( Czechs ) , then to write complaints and judgments in the Bohemian language . German complaints are not introduced , German judgments will not like it. Mayor and Council be authorized in the certificate, choose a translucent them suitable person for the office of judge. The Council had the right to dismiss people from the city and to take righteous people who want to operate in the city on a trade in the same . Every citizen had the right to brew beer barley when the turn came . From each brew a shock were meißn . and six buckets of grains to be paid. If someone dies without heirs , so his assets did not fall to the landlord , but the community. The residents were able to sell their goods even people who did not live in the city.
In consideration of the poverty of the subjects he intended in this document, that they should be exempt from all services Robot by hand or with horses, with the exception of harvesting time and the altherkömmlichen charges that were recorded in the registers.
The pastures are likely to be the host Auern withdrawn neither the leaders nor of the later landlords. Finally, he allowed that the rights are registered in the country table .
At that time, many German immigrants from the villages of Pfraumberg eg by Hostau and in the surrounding villages . The German language spread , despite the efforts of the landlord not to let the Bohemian language displace .
George of Guttenstein died in 1598 , leaving Hostau and Zwirschen his cousin Henry Lawrence of Guttenstein , which in 1599 bought to Zetschin and was married to Sibylle silt. Rudolf II confirmed on Thursdays by Martini of the year 1601, the privileges of the city Hostau .
Laurenz Heinrich Graf von Guttenstein was at the time of the uprising commissioner at the Directorate of the stands . After the Battle of the White Mountain , he was trapped in his house, and sentenced to loss of its all assets and prisons , in which he at the Old Town city hall to 7 August 1622 , and then held at the castle to Zbirov yet 1624 was . In intercession of his wife Sybille a pint of wine it was administered by the governor Prince of Liechtenstein at every midday meal . He had Hostau , castle and town with the rights of patronage over the church , three houses in the city and the Grange , 14 villages in which lived 237 residents , namely : Zetschin , Dobraken , Tschernahora , Holub 's , Pscheß , Mirko joke Vittana , bulk Arschen with the patronage rights over the church , Gramatin , Bywater , Schilligkau , Horouschen , then Sedlitz with Kal , also the good Zwirschen with the Meierhofe Hassatitz . Pössigkau and Zemschen were purchased from Georg von Guttenstein .
These goods including appurtenances were , as she had Henry of Guttenstein inherited from his uncle in 1598 , meißn on 53 121 shock. estimated.
Prince Liechtenstein and sold Hostau Zwirschen 1622 Zdenko Wratislaw of Mittrowitz . But the rule changed its owner again, for as early as next year ( 1624) sold Graf Wratislaw meißn these goods for 124 583 shock. Christina Kordula Czernin , born Helmak . This was the wife of Prothus Czernin of Chudenitz , His Imperial cupbearer and comber of Salzburg bishop. This was confirmed on 16 October 1625 a new order for the guilds . From him the pictures come in Hostau deanery , which represent the host robbery. In 1630 Schlattin nor was purchased with knight's seat and village, yard, brewhouse with parts of the villages Sedletz , Horouschen to 17000 shock of Dionysius Wenzel Czernin of Chudenitz .
Confirmed the intercession of Hostau and he renewed them all the freedom and allowed that the same have been registered in the country table . This document was revised in Taus on 16 November 1640th Already in 1626, Emperor Ferdinand II confirmed the privileges of the city from other members of the former emperors to Vienna.
Prothus Czernin also tried to get the Bohemian language on his estates , but incapable of doing so because the German language had already taken deep roots. Kordula bequeathed in their wills (1634 ) of the Corpus Christi Chapel in Hostau 3500 guilders and prescribed this money on Schlattin .
Then Hostau came with Zwirschen , Schlattin and 1656 purchased Melmitz to Mary Anna Czernin , who was married to Ludwig Count of Starhernberg . Both these goods sold in 1656 for 120,000 florins Rhenish Count Adam Matthias Trauttmansdorff , which linked them to his rule Bischofteinitz . In 1737 the city of Emperor Charles VI were . the privileges 1456-1626 confirmed. These received their confirmation again by Emperor Joseph II in the deed of 3 March 1783 , in so far they do not oppose the state constitution .
Since some citizens turned in the broken among them disputes with evasion of the authorities with their complaints to the royal court of appeal , the citizenry was enjoined , initially put forward their complaints to the magistrates , and when they could find no hearing , to turn to the captain . Should the applicant not be satisfied with the decisions of the captain , he may bring an appeal to the authorities . If a citizen with disregard of the authorities still apply to the Court of Appeal , he would be subject to arrest or the findings of the things with iron bands ( 1736) .The " Gallows " , which limits the city in the east proves that the same in earlier years had a court. The last convict was in the 18th Century executed. Also by Emperor Francis II in 1793 on 20 November, the former privileges of the city confirmed.
In 1855 there was near a Hostau the Andreas Ziegler associated paper mill to which a loop mirror was still being built .
On 19 August 1877 , the city was ravaged by a devastating conflagration , which , as already mentioned, the Dean's Church and the school fell victim .
In previous years, a mine was built in the Black Mountain at Holy Cross slope, was found in which silver -bearing ore . Due to unprofitability of the operation was discontinued . In the hallway "art " south of Hostau ( near the mother villages station ) was dug for copper ore . In older cards, a copper mine is located in the place . Remains of it were visible . After the first world war Ing Bardo opened from Putzbühl on Miihlberg above the "Nuns Loche " ' a small mining operation , which was also uneconomical and had to be abandoned. Shortly before the Second World War opened a mining company on a mountain Tschernahora ore mine , where you promoted Schwefelerz . It has even been built to mine operating an electric transmission line to operate more efficiently with machinery to Koenen . There were plans in place , which provided for an expansion of Zwirschner railway station to a Erzgüterbahnhof . This mining operation was shut down after the outbreak of the Second World War.
In 1921 , the city was forced to inadequate water supply , which consisted of wooden pipes and a few public standpipes ( " Röihakastn " = tube box) supplied , to be replaced by a modern water pipe with house connections . This multi-million project was executed by the North Bohemian Water line construction company in Usti nad Labem . The city was supplied with electric current .
During this time, a war memorial was erected in the market place , the cost of which was raised through donations of the inhabitants of Hostau , Zwirschen , Mirko wit and Horouschen and by contributions made by the local clubs . On both sides of the elongated marketplace ball acacias were planted to beautify the cityscape , and the enterprising members of the singing club built the lying to the east of the city " Miihlberg " to a beautiful gardens with walking paths, benches and flower beds from .
Hostau was also the seat of a vicariate ( deanery ) , which did not mean that the Vikær (Dean ) had to be the respective pastor of Hostau , but some bishops appointed by the pastor of the Vicariate , fourteen parishes with 25 223 Catholics belonged to the Vicariate :
Berg, Eisendorf , Holy Cross, Hostau , Melmitz , Metz Ling , mother village , Plöß , Ronsperg , bulk Arschen , Schüttwa , Stockau Waier and Weißensulz . Also, were curacies with stand 1933, resident 17 Protestants and 113 Jews.
Housing and population figures :
1587 122 houses ; 1789 122 houses ; 1839 154 houses, 1166 inhabitants, 175 houses in 1913 , 1,209 residents ; 1930 inhabitants in 1060 , 951 inhabitants in 1939 .
Patch dimensions in ha , 1913 by Liebscher, 1939 H.Schlögl ( in parentheses):
A total of 639.91 ( 635.83 ) , 472.85 acres ( 444.96 ) , meadows 56.09 ( 66.90 ) 45.79 pastures ( 20:04 ) , Forest 23.07 ( 54.46 ) , Gardens 8 , 14 ( 11.89 ) , Bauarea 8.08 , 0.07 Unproductive soil tax-free surfaces 22,82 .